Gender and Citizenship Participation in Empowerment Programmes in Agriculture for Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State

By Roseline E. Tawo, Arikpo B. Arikpo and Marcellinus U. Ojuah.

Published by The Social Sciences Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Poverty and illiteracy rates in Nigeria and most developing nations have been associated with low level of illiteracy and economic development of these nations. Consequently, both men and women have strategic felt needs such as enough food, adequate accommodation and good healthcare etc., which have to be satisfied if the country ever hopes to eradicate poverty among its households and citizens and as well meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty alleviation. The Federal and State democratic administrations in Nigeria have been providing empowerment programmes, especially in agriculture aimed at reducing poverty among its people by encouraging citizen’s participation in a variety of programmes. However, established gender roles, stereotyping and sensitivity have tended to affect the effective participation of women in these programmes. This paper therefore, examined the extent to which gender issues have influenced active participation in small holders’ scheme in Oil Palm farming in Cross River State of Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. This was used because the researchers were not involved in manipulating the independent variables. A sample of 95 farmers was randomly selected from among oil palm farmers in Ibiae Oil Palm Estate, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State of Nigeria. A 30 item instrument called Citizenship Participation in Empowerment Programme in Agriculture Scale (CIPEPAS) constructed on a four-point Likert-type scale by the researchers was used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using simple percentages and One-way analysis of Variance Statistics. It was found out among others that, generally women are not actually involved in this critical agriculture-based empowerment programme on poverty alleviation due to gender roles and stereotyping. Also, education of women is seen as an enabling tool for their personal and professional participation in development-oriented projects. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that, women like their male counterparts should be given ample opportunity to make input towards an effective management of the scheme not minding the custom on women. Also, awareness and motivation has to be created on all participants through training, financial aid and agriculture inputs provided by governments in support of the farmers. Lastly, rural women should be discouraged from mainly being used as domestic beings, but should be encouraged to see themselves as partners required for the scheme’s success.

Keywords: Gender, Citizenship Participation, Empowerment Programme, Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation, Small Holders’ Scheme

International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp.35-44. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 608.529KB).

Dr. Roseline E. Tawo

Lecturer, Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Holder of a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Degree in Elementary Education, Masters of Education (M.Ed) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph D) Degrees in Guidance and Counselling from University of Calabar, Calabar where I am now teaching Guidance and Counselling, Adult Psychology, Women Education courses and other related courses. She is a trained Home Economist. I taught for 12 years in a number of Secondary Schools in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States of Nigeria. Worked for 5 years as a Research Officer and served as the Head of the Department of Research and Statistics in the Local Government Education Authority, Calabar. Functioned as the Coordinator of the B.Ed Adult Education Consultancy Programme. A Course Adviser, teach and supervise student’s projects work. Served as an Examination Officer and the Industrial Attachment Coordinator. I am a member of several Professional Associations, which among them include: The Counselling Association of Nigeria, The Nigerian Society of Educational Psychologist, World Council of Curriculum and Instruction, Nigerian National Council for Adult Education, National Association for Women Academics among others. Has attended several conferences and published papers in many Professional Journals both internationally and locally. Has articles in books and also a co-author of a book on psychology. I have skills in sewing, knitting, crocheting, bead making and other crafts. I am married. I am an honest, hardworking, dedicated lady who maintain standard in all I do.

Prof. Arikpo B. Arikpo

Senior Lecturer, Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Dr. Arikpo B. Arikpo, a Nigerian with University education obtained from Nebraska University system, USA (1975-1984). Has been a lecturer in the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria since 1986 till date. Other positions held were; Director Government Agency for Adult and Non-Formal Education; Coordinator University of Calabar Distance and Extra- Mural Studies Programmes and Head, Department of Adult and Continuing Education. A member of many academic and service organisations and a recipient of many honors and awards from Nigeria and USA. My hobbies are farming, current affairs and adult empowerment programmes development. Married with children.

Dr. Marcellinus U. Ojuah

Senior Lecturer, Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Holds a Ph.D in Adult Education from University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Currently a senior lecturer at University of Calabar. Belongs to three learned societies (NNCAE, CAETA, MNAEP) Involved in CBO/NGO activities.


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