Micro-small-medium-scale industries (MSMsI) based on the “Putting-out” System (POS) with home-workers (HWs) have long existed in Indonesia, but recently show significant and prominent growth that is complex and different from POS in general. The POS works through decentralisation of production, where the largest part of the production processes are taken out from factory to the HWs and their families. This strategy that MSMsI employ to enhance efficiency and competitiveness, and which –at the same time marginalises the HWs– has not been exposed. This obscured POS phenomenon is the drive of this research. Accordingly, the research includes the following characteristics: the strategies applied include case-studies in gender-perspective; the commodity is batik (not general garment); applying cluster approach; the actors are entrepreneurs and HW; and gender analyses. The analyses focus on the dialectical relationships between capitalism logic and patriarchical values as shown in three-level relational dimensions, which are entrepreneur-HW, among HWs, and HW – family. It covers a literature discourse that describes ‘invisibility’ of POS and HW-based MSMsI and uncovers it. It is argued that the HW integration to the global market has contributed to the fundamental POS transformation processes, which differentiate it from the common POS. The transformation impacts generally push HW to take strategic roles in supporting the existence of the industry, but also push aside and marginalise female HW in particular. The POS transformation happens through deconstruction and reconstruction processes which maintain the exploitative and gender-biased relationships.
|Keywords:||Industry, Home-workers, “Putting-out” System, Capitalism, Gender|
Chairperson, Lecturer staff at Faculty of Social Science and Researcher in Centre for Gender Research and Studies, Satya Wacana Christian University Salatiga, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia
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