Young Adults’ Retrospective Perceptions of Parenting

By Mikiyasu Hakoyama, Robert J. Griffore and Lillian A. Phenice.

Published by The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Published online: April 9, 2014 $US5.00

In recent years, social and cultural norms have evolved together with accelerated changes in our society. These changes have, in turn, influenced children’s expectations of their parents. While mothers have been considered primary caregivers for centuries and are often considered more influential than fathers, fathers also attempt to act in the best interests of their children. This study examined selected long-term outcomes of parenting by mothers and fathers on young adults. An online survey was conducted in the Midwest, USA, to assess young adult's retrospective perceptions of the parenting they received from their parents (N = 1,208). Path analysis was used to examine paternal and maternal parenting effects on the young adults’ developmental outcomes. Respondents’ perceptions of father availability were examined in relation to perceptions of parents’ parenting quality. Paternal parenting and maternal parenting had different roles in shaping young adult respondents’ self-esteem, socio-emotional maturity, academic attitude, and self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for supporting effective parents are discussed.

Keywords: Father Availability, Parenting, Path Analysis

The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies, Volume 8, Issue 1, April 2014, pp.35-50. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Published online: April 9, 2014 (Article: Electronic (PDF File; 447.934KB)).

Dr. Mikiyasu Hakoyama

Assistant Professor, Human Environmental Studies Department, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA

Dr. Mikiyasu Hakoyama teaches courses in Human Development and Family Studies at Central Michigan University. His research focus centers on parenthood and grandparenthood. In particular, he has examined fathers’ perspectives of fatherhood and is now examining adult children’s perspectives of fatherhood. Dr. Hakoyama has presented more than 40 studies at national and international conferences. He has also authored and coauthored numerous book chapters and journal articles. His most recent article focused on adult children’s perspectives of their fathers’ parenting quality and its influence on children’s developmental outcomes. His recent presentations include an examination of father roles, influence of parental drinking on adolescent alcohol initiation, factors associated with grandparent-grandchild closeness, and adult grandchildren’s perspectives of grandparental roles.

Dr. Robert J. Griffore

Professor, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Dr. Lillian A. Phenice

Professor, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Lillian A. Phenice is Professor in the Michigan State University College of Social Science, Department of Human Development and Family Studies. Her current research is focused on human development, gerontology, and families.